It provides food for at least 6-9 months, and year-round in some climates. The root grows large and deep, and it can be harvested for potent herbal medicine anytime. [7], In the United Kingdom, the plant is often found growing near stinging nettles and there is a widely held belief that the underside of the dock leaf, squeezed to extract a little juice, can be rubbed on the skin to counteract the itching caused by brushing against a nettle plant. [1][5], Rumex obtusifolius is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant that grows to a height of 40 to 150 cm (16 to 59 in). Aptly named bloody dock for its distinctive red veins, this herbaceous plant originates in the Mediterranean. The flowers are small, green and numerous, arranged in whorled spikes at the ends of the stem. The first is the look of the plant’s lower leaves. This is called the ocrea, and it turns brown as the plant ages. Flowers. You have to love the texture of this dried flower spike: If you grab the coarse brown spike and slide your hand along it, you will come away with a handful of small, crispy flakes (the seeds and dried sepals). Image courtesy of the Jack Harper slide collection. [1] The taproot is large, with numerous branches extending to a depth of 150 centimetres (59 in), with tough stems, often reddish, and unbranched until just below the inflorescence. Bitter dock — also called broad-leaved dock — has leaves which are fairly “flat” across the surface. You will need to have all the parts of a plant and to select plants with mature fruit to identify most species of Rumex that occur in our area. Rumex crispus Distinguishing Features. Yellow dock has, in fact, been used medicinally (for a number of ailments) for ages, which is why many prefer to refer to it as an "herb." Fortunately, Rumex crispus, a home remedy for such skin irritation, often grows near stinging nettle. It is native to Europe, but is found on all temperate continents. In fact, the common name, "yellow dock" refers to the yellowish color often found inside the root, when it is sliced open. Dock, Rumex crispus, appears in the garden in large spreading groups, and is characterised by coarse, battered leaves. Yellow dock flowers are green and sometimes a touch of red. Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed m… Most species are common and widespread. Those of you aware of the challenges involved in dandelion control will understand this problem. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. They make you think of coffee grounds, which is appropriate since people have roasted this plant's seeds for use as a coffee substitute in the past. Dock plants are persistent perennials, which means you can forage it throughout the year. Wild dock species are native all around the world. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found on Japanese knotweed). ... More Content from Plant Identification Plant Identification. Exotic species include Curled Dock (R. crispus), Clustered Dock (R. conglomeratus), Fiddle Dock (R. pulcher) and Broad-leaf Dock (R. obtusifolius). Several plant varieties produce Psyllium, but plantain is a rich source of the compound and the easiest to find and identify in most regions. It is a member of the Polygonaceae (buckwheat or dock) family. Regrowth from the rosette usually takes place in spring. The stem leaves are alternate and are narrowly ovate–lanceolate. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. Segments in the outer whorl are small and spreading while the inner whorl forms fruit valves, which are widely ovately-triangular. [1] It is easily recognizable by its very large oval leaves with cordate bases and rounded tips, some of the lower leaves having red stems. Once you are able to use this feature to identify it as yellow dock, you will never forget this plant. Blooming occurs in clusters in the form of multiple, long, skinny flower stalks at the top of the plant. It is considered a broadleaf, perennial "weed," "wildflower," or "herb," depending on your perspective. This rosette-forming plant is easily grown as an annual or perennial in sun to partial shade and can even be used in a water garden. [1] The leaves of this plant can grow to about 30 cm (12 in) in length and 15 centimetres (5.9 in) wide. It often tolerates poor, disturbed soils and is frequently found along roadsides, although it prefers to grow in rich, loamy soils in full sun and with adequate water. Cho, Y., Kwon, O. In the spring, the greens are edible and in the fall the plant produces buckwheat like grain that can be ground into wild foraged flour. This plant has a long taproot that enables it survive long drought periods and out competes other vegetation. Native species include Slender Dock (Rumex brownii), Wiry Dock (R. dumosus), Mud Dock (R. bidens) and Glistening Dock (R. crystallinus). Butter Dock. This website has photos and descriptions of native plants found in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. There are 34 species of dock present in Canada, of which 20 are native and 14 are introduced (Brouillet et al. dock. Look, in particular, for the sword-like shape and the curled edges of the foliage. [1] Rumex was Pliny's name for sorrel,[5] while obtusifolius means 'obtuse-leaved' (obtuse + foliage). The leaves of Asiatic dock (R. confertus) are just as wide, if not wider. [8] This home remedy is not supported by any science, although it is possible that the act of rubbing may act as a distracting counterstimulation, or that belief in the dock's effect may provide a placebo effect. [1], The name, Rumex obtusifolius, was assigned by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century, and has remained unchanged, although there are numerous subspecies. For the same reason, while the leaves are edible, it is best to avoid eating them in large quantities. For some species in the Full Key you will need to measure the length of the pedicel. This alternate common name is also sometimes given as "curled dock"; the species name, crispus is Latin for "curly.". Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock, broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. But it is mainly the plant's root, rather than its leaves, that has been used in folk medicine. Genus Rumex falls into the Polygonaceae. It can … Gledhill, David (2008). Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus. Some Rumex species that are widespread in Canada show regional abundance in certain provinces; R. pseudonatronatus is most commonly found in Alberta and Saskatchewan, R. longi… It is from this curly leaf margin that the weed gets the nickname of "curly dock." This makes curly dock one of the easier plants for beginners to identify. Broadleaf Dock. & Nam, S.-H., 2006. Whereas the subject of this article has basal leaves shaped like swords, the basal leaves of its relative are shaped more like shields. Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. Many weeds are obscure plants that are easy to miss, but yellow dock is a weed that stands out. [1][3][4] It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. R. crispusas the name suggests has wavy, curled leaf edges with wedge-shaped leaves. Indigenous to Europe, Rumex crispus has become naturalized across much of the world. [6], Rumex crispus - curly dock - is similar in appearance, but with thinner and wave-like leaves. A tea prepared from the root was thought to cure boils. That is the color of the dried flower-head in fall. Dover Publications. The seeds produced are dry and reddish brown. [1], Species of flowering plant in the family Polygonaceae. Native plants have been photographed from the province's Prairie, Cypress Upland, Parkland, and Boreal eco-regions. If you have a serious amount of them outcompeting other plant species, stop ploughing and using heavy agricultural machinery on the land because it's that that's causing the dock overgrowth! R. obtusifoliushas long, broad, oval- to lance-shaped leaves with small greenish flowers that turn red as they mature. [1] The edges of the leaves are slightly "crisped" or wavy, the upper surface is hairless and the under surface may be papillose. [1][6] Seedlings can be identified by the oval leaves with red stems and rolled leaves sprouting from the center of the plant. It doesn’t have a showy flower and the leaves can look kind of generic. Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock,[1][2] broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. [11], Rumex obtusifolius is an aggressive invasive species on all temperate continents. Broad-leaved dock is a tall plant with very large, wavy-edged, oblong leaves that have red stems on their undersides. 2016Footnote 1). [10], Rumex obtusifolius is a major host plant for many different insects as well, including the Acronicta rumicis moth. For A. rumicis research, this host plant is generally targeted because it is found highly within the moth's range. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found on Japanese knotweed). If you catch dock too late, it will send up a flower stalk that can grow to 3 feet high. Most of these species are very difficult to identify by the achene. In some states of the U.S., yellow dock is considered an invasive plant. Flower spikes have numerous clusters of reddish-brown flowers. Small, greenish white flowers appear on tall spikes. The seed stalks start out green but quickly turn to … Common names are from state and federal lists. It’s unfortunate that peopl PLANTS Identification Keys: Plant Materials Web Site: Plant Materials Publications ... hybrid dock Rumex albescens Oahu dock Rumex ×alexidis [maritimus ... American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits. Ecological and morphological characteristics of the endoparasitoids of larval, "Home remedies: dock leaves for nettle stings", "List of Invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rumex_obtusifolius&oldid=988538738, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 20:03. Another aid in identifying this weed is its height. [1] Broad-leaved dock is designated an "injurious weed" under the UK Weeds Act 1959. Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. Powderham Castle … A related weed can also grow to be as much as 4 feet tall: bitter, or "broadleaf" dock (Rumex obtusifolius). Broadleaf Dock. The perianth-segments are in two whorls of three. [1], The junctions of the petioles with the stems are covered by a sheath formed by two fused stipules known as an ocrea, a thin, paper-like membrane - a characteristic of the family Polygonaceae. In more detail, the calyx of curly dock has smooth margins while the calyx of broad-leaved dock has horned margins. Curly dock, a perennial broadleaf plant, usually grows in wet areas and is frequently associated with overwatering or standing water in low areas. [9], In George Eliot's Adam Bede, set in the early 19th century, broad dock leaves were used to wrap farmhouse butter. Botanical Classification for Yellow Dock Plants, Home Remedy Against Rash From Stinging Nettles, Common Backyard Plants That Are Poisonous to Dogs. Leaves can be used as a vegetable; roots and seeds may be used for herbal or medicinal purposes Broad-leaved dock ( Rumex obtusifolius) is a long lived perennial with a basal rosette of long-stalked, smooth ovate-oblong leaves, stems 80cm-1m (32in-3¼ft) high and the distinctive seedheads on spikes that persist into winter. Its toxicity is due to its oxalic acid content. Each page contains identification information, which parts are edible and how to prepare them for safe consumption. Stems become stiff and woody as the plant matures. Broadleaf Dock. [citation needed] Dried seeds are used as a spice. [1] It has been an invasive species of the Great Lakes region of North America where it was first sighted in 1840. One of the best survival greens is wild dock. Identification difficulty level: novice Curly dock, Latin name: Rumex crispus, is an excellent wild plant to know. The tap root can be up to 90cm (3ft) in length. They can tolerate poor soil, drought and compaction far more than many other species. [12], Various parasites and predators of R. obtusifolius include 32 insect species and 12 fungi species. [1], Leaves of the plant can be used as salad,[1] to prepare a vegetable broth or to be cooked like spinach. The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex, are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. [citation needed], Rumex obtusifolius is widely distributed throughout the world. The yellowish root notwithstanding, the signature color of Rumex crispus, in the eyes of many students of wild plants, is brown. Curly dock inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed areas. It is found throughout California up to an elevation of 8200 feet (2500 m). Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds . In Romania, the leaves are sometimes used as an alternative to other plants in the making of sarmale. The flowers start out a much less distinctive light-greenish color (they can have a reddish tinge, too). Despite its medicinal qualities, Rumex crispus is listed as a plant poisonous to dogs by the ASPCA. It is easy to identify, and the reasons for bothering to identify it include that it is: Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus. They contain oxalic acid which can be hazardous if consumed in large quantities. It usually requires the presence of the perianth for species identification but this is usually removed during processing in commercial grain lots. If you are going to try to dig it out, you must dig deep, so as to remove the whole root; otherwise, as a perennial weed, the plant will re-emerge. Wild Dock Wild Onions Wild Rice Wild Wheat Wood Ear Mushroom Wood Sorrel Yaupon. It is native to Europe, but is found on all temperate continents. Rumex crispus produces a long taproot. It is a culinary and pot herb as well as an apothecary's medicinal. It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. Other dock species common in New Zealand: Curled dock (Rumex crispus) Similar to broad-leaved dock except for its leaves which are narrower, with crinkled edges, leaves tapered towards tip and base. The plant reaches as much as 4 feet tall at maturity. 2004. Vibrant Green Backlit Dock Leaves (Rumex obtusifolius L.) Growing by a Field. It is in the same genus as another weed commonly found in North America, sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). It is considered a broadleaf, perennial "weed," "wildflower," or "herb," depending on your perspective. The leaves of most dock plants are long and narrow, and the plants are most easily identified by their distinctive seed stalks. Even the folks over at the United States Food and Drug Administration are willing to admit the value of Psyllium – something they rarely do when referencing either wild or cultivated herbs. Find out … Bloody dock is an attractive plant with a network of brightly colored veins on its wide, lance-shaped leaves. "The Names of Plants". Bitter dock is a perennial herbaceous plant that is found in many countries. New York. ---Description--- It is a large and spreading plant, its stout stems 2 to 3 feet high, the leaves 6 to 12 inches long, with rather slender foot-stalks, the margins waved and the end or apex of the leaf rounded. It's fairly easy to identify, and grows abundantly throughout all of non-Arctic North America. Broad-leaved dock can be differentiated from other genus Rumex plants by its broad, blunt leaves. Curly dock ( Rumex crispus , also called yellow dock) is one of those plants that is easily overlooked. Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. The inflorescence consists of large clusters of racemes which contain small greenish flowers that change to red as they mature. Bitter dock (Rumex obtusifolius) Curly dock — also called curled dock — has leaves with lots of “ruffles” across the leaf and along the edges. The plant's dark green leaves will further help you identify it when you find it. It is 4 mm long; outer whorl of 3 green sepals and... Leaves. It spreads via seed produced by tiny brownish-green flowers, which appear in abundance in summer and are loved by seed-eating birds. If your skin has ever brushed up against stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) while you were working in the garden, you know about the burning sensation caused by their spines, followed by an itchy rash. [1] In the UK, the invertebrate herbivore species is a leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula. The calyx of the ripe fruit is helpful (and often necessary) to identify the plant. Furthermore, it’s not typically as prolific of a weed as dandelion— at least not in urban areas. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Members of this genus are very common perennial herbs with a native almost worldwide distribution, and introduced species growing in the few places where the genus is not native. [1] It is a plant growing readily on arable land, meadows, waste ground, roadsides, ditches, shorelines and riverbanks, woodland margins, forest clearings, and orchards. But it is easy to tell the two apart: True to its name, the broadleaf type has bottom, or "basal" leaves that are very wide (4 inches across, versus 1 inch across for yellow dock plants). Just roll a leaf of yellow dock between your thumb and forefinger to crush it, then doctor your wound with the juicy pulp left over, and the burning will subside. One of the best identification features for docks is a small, thin sheath that covers the base of each dock leaf. Cambridge University Press. They can be eaten either raw (when young and tender) or steamed. Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) It's not for nothing that this plant is named, "giant ragweed." Below is a list of wild edible plants that you can use when living off the land. This plant blooms June through September. The distinct flower head of the plant that remains after the blooms have dried and turned brown is helpful for the identification of yellow dock. The condition of the ocrea can be a good indicator of how tender and tasty that dock plant is. The bottom leaves can be quite long, ranging from 1/2 foot to 1 foot in length. David Beaulieu is a garden writer with nearly 20 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 years experience working in nurseries. The flowers once mature are used in dried flower arranging. The leaves are fairly thick and the stems can get a tinge of red, especially in cold weather. Plants may be poisonous to livestock when ingested in quantity. 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